The Magna Carta of Space: Cooperation in
Space Document - Certificate of Docking Signed by Crew
Members of the First International Space Mission
of Docking, signed in space by
crew members of the Apollo-Soyuz expedition July 17 1975, documents the first
joint space mission. Signed by Thomas P.
Donald “Deke” Slayton, Vance Brand, Alexi Leonov, and Valeri Kubaso,
this document marks the
of the end to Cold War hostilities between both countries.
The “Space Magna Carta” set the stage for
to space exploration. As part of a joint agreement between the United States
and the Soviet Union two manned spacecraft were launched, one from Kazakhstan
(Soyuz), the other from Florida (Apollo). Both craft planned to rendezvous in
orbit. Engineers from both sides worked together in the development and
construction of the unit that linked the two spacecraft together. The joint
effort was a remarkable success: For two days, crew members visited each other, ate
meals together, and, in a symbolic gesture, reconnected two pieces of a
plaque, one brought by each crew. The mission ushered in future joint operations in space.
the Cooperation in Space document notes, “the flight crews…share the hope that this first
International Manned space flight will stand
history as a significant advance in the ability of the nations to work
in ways that advance
the interests of people everywhere.”
Lucid Training Spacesuit
1994, Shanon Lucid had been a U.S. astronaut for 15 years, and had flown four
shuttle missions. Her most amazing achievement was still to come, however. One
Friday Lucid received an intriguing phone call from her boss, Robert
"Hoot" Gibson, then the head of NASA's astronaut office. He
asked her if she would be interested in starting full-time Russian-language
instruction. Gibson told her that this did not mean she was going to Russia, but
Lucid knew what his request meant. With the Mir mission in the works, Lucid
immediately agreed to study Russian full-time.
The Mir mission was less than a year and a half
away. In that time, Lucid had to master Russian, learn the operating systems
for Mir and Soyuz, the station's transport craft, and maintain her familiarity
with the American technology. As if that were not enough, she also had to
perfect the series of experiments she would be conducting while in orbit.
three months of intensive study, Lucid received the go-ahead to start training
at Star City, the cosmonaut training center outside Moscow. And in February of 1996, after she passed all the required medical and technical
exams, the Russian Space Flight Commission certified Lucid as a Mir crew member.
On March 22, 1996, Lucid lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center on the shuttle
Atlantis. Three days later the shuttle docked with Mir, and she
officially joined the space station crew for what was planned to be a
who holds the American record for days spent in space at 223, recalls this
amazing experience: "When I reflect on my six months on Mir, I have no
shortage of memories. But there is one that captures the legacy of the
Shuttle-Mir program. One evening Onufriyenko, Usachev and I were floating around
the table after supper. We were drinking tea, eating cookies and talking. The
cosmonauts were very curious about my childhood in Texas and Oklahoma.
Onufriyenko talked about the Ukrainian village where he grew up, and Usachev
reminisced about his own Russian village. After a while we realized we had all
grown up with the same fear: an atomic war between our two countries… After
talking about our childhoods some more, we marveled at what an unlikely scenario
had unfolded. Here we were, from countries that were sworn enemies a few years
earlier, living together on a space station in harmony and peace. And,
incidentally, having a great time."
Sokol-KV2 spacesuit was used by Shannon Lucid in Russia
during training for her mission to Mir.
She is the only woman ever awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
6 Voice Box
Valentina Tereshkova parachuted out of over
125 aircraft before she jumped out of the Vostok-6. What began as a hobby
led to her selection for cosmonaut training and her achievement of becoming
the first woman in space. When Tereshkova was selected for the Soviet space
program in 1962, she became the first person to be recruited without
experience as a test pilot. Her selection was instead based on her
Assigned to be the pilot of
the Vostok 6 mission, she was given the radio name, "Chaika,"
which is Russian for seagull. Vostok-6 lifted off from Tyuratam Launch
Center (Baikonur Cosmodrome) on June 16, 1963. It remained in space for
nearly three days and orbited the Earth 48 times, once every 88 minutes.
Unlike earlier Soviet space flights, Tereshkova was permitted to operate the
The craft reentered the earth's atmosphere
on June 19. Tereshkova parachuted to the ground, as was typical of
cosmonauts at that time. She landed approximately 380 miles northeast of
Qaraghandy, Kazakhstan. It was Tereshkova's only parachute jump from a
spacecraft as she ended her career as a cosmonaut after that flight. But in
that one flight she became the first woman in space and the first woman in
orbit. It was 19 years until another woman, Svetlana Savitskaya, flew into
space aboard Soyuz-T 7. Tereshkova later became a member of the Communist
party and a representative of the Soviet government.
voice box recorded the transmissions of Valentina Tereshkova,
the first woman in space, during her groundbreaking flight on Vostok-6 in 1963.
Signed Report of the First Man in Space
Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was called "The
Columbus of The Cosmos," an apt and well-deserved title. His epic 108
minute earth-orbital0-flight on April 12,1961 was far more than just a
successful operational mission. It was man's first encounter with the nether
regions of space and the beginning of man's journey to the stars. As pilot
of the spaceship Vostok 1, he proved that man could endure the rigors
of lift-off, re-entry, and weightlessness, and yet still perform the manual
operations essential to spacecraft flight.
Gagarin was superbly prepared for his
encounter with history, both physically and technologically. On the night
before his flight, while others paced and worried, "Cosmonaut One"
slumbered. When asked how he could sleep so peacefully on the eve of the
launching, Yuri answered, "Would it be right to take off if I were not
rested? It was my duty to sleep so I slept." This is discipline and
dedication at its best.
At the conclusion of his flight, he was
subjected to the most intensive debriefing and scientific examination. It
was found that in spite of the difficult and strange weightless environment, his
great skill permitted him to work and to record important data which his
fellow astronauts and scientific collaborators would find vital to future
report on the historic Vostok mission of April 12, 1961 was signed by the
first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, shortly after his return to earth.
Signed Report of the Apollo-Soyuz Mission
report signed by all 5 cosmonauts and astronauts displays the Apollo-Soyuz
mission as the bridge of cooperation that would inspire the current joint
missions and International Space Station. An incredibly important document,
confirming the "Magna Carta of Space".
P. 1: Space
P. 2: Space Collection
P. 3: Space Collection
P. 4: Space Collection
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